Aortic Aneurysm And Dissecting Repair In Jaipur

An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement or dilatation of a part of the body’s major blood vessel, the aorta. If the aorta becomes too large, it may be at higher risk for rupturing (bursting) or tearing (aortic dissection), requiring emergency surgery to repair it. We aim to find and repair these aneurysms before these emergencies occur to reduce the risk to our patients as much as possible.

An aortic dissection is a serious condition in which the inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel branching off the heart, tears. Blood surges through the tear, causing the inner and middle layers of the aorta to separate (dissect)

Different types of Aortic Dissection

  • Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection: This type of dissection occurs in the first part of the aorta, closer to the heart, and can be immediately life-threatening. It usually requires emergency open chest surgery to repair or replace the first segment of the aorta where the tear started (ascending aorta +/- the arch and/or aortic valve). This is a more common type of dissection than Type B, and the dissection of the aorta usually extends through the entire length of the aorta.
  • Stanford Type B Aortic Dissection: This type of tear begins farther down the aorta (descending aorta beyond the arch), and farther from the heart. Like the type A dissection, this usually extends from the descending aorta into the abdominal segment (abdominal aorta), but doesn’t involve the first part of the aorta in the front of the chest. Surgery may or may not be needed immediately, depending on exactly where the dissection is located and if it is or isn’t cutting off blood flow to your organs. These operations usually can be performed with a stent-graft device inserted into the aorta.
  • Another classification system (DeBakey Classification) defines dissection by three types. Type 1 originates in the ascending aorta and extends through the downstream aorta. Type 2 originates and is limited to the ascending aorta (both would be considered Stanford Type A). Type 3 originates in the descending aorta and extends downward (similar to Type B).

Signs And Symptoms Of Aortic Dissection

The most common characteristic of aortic dissection is its abrupt start. It can happen at any time, while doing anything, at rest or when you’re sleeping.

  • Sudden severe, sharp pain in your chest or upper back; is also described as a tearing, stabbing, or ripping feeling.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fainting or dizziness.
  • Low blood pressure; high suspicion when there’s a 20 mmHg pressure difference between arms.
  • Diastolic heart murmur, muffled heart sounds.
  • Rapid weak pulse.
  • Heavy sweating.
  • Confusion.
  • Loss of vision.
  • Stroke symptoms, including weakness or paralysis on one side of your body, trouble talking.

What Complications Can Result From Aortic Dissection

Aortic dissection can lead to:                         
  • Stroke.
  • Aortic valve damage.
  • Damage to internal organs.
  • Fluid buildup between the heart muscle itself and the sac covering the heart. This condition, called cardiac tamponade, puts pressure on the heart and prevents it from working properly.
  • Death.
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